Coal phase-out

Coal is the most carbon intensive fossil fuel and phasing it out is a key step to achieve the emissions reductions needed to limit global warming to 1.5°C, as enshrined in the Paris Agreement. Most emissions from coal are in the electricity sector and, as we already have the technologies that can replace coal, phase out is a relatively cheap and easy option to reduce emissions. Our research shows that the EU and OECD countries must stop burning coal for electricity by 2030, China by 2040 and the rest of the world by mid-century in order to meet commitments made in Paris in the most cost effective manner.


Policy Analyst


1-2 April 2019
Global energy transition and future of coal in Indonesia

Two seminars, organised by Climate Transparency and partners, related to the global energy transition and future of coal and prospects on energy transition in Indonesia’s power sector.


Climate Analytics’ Ursula Fuentes Hutfilter at the Climate Transparency event in Jakarta, Indonesia.

27 February 2019
A just coal transition for South Africa

Symposium in Cape Town, South Africa, on a just coal transition, organised by The Energy Research Centre, TIPS, IDDRI and Climate Strategies. Climate Analytics’ Paola Yanguas Parra took part in the discussion and gave a presentation on coal transition scenarios in light of the Paris Agreement, taking Japan as a case study, which can be downloaded here.

13 December 2018
Coal Free Day, UK pavilion at COP24

Panel discussions related to Coal Free Day held at the UK pavilion at COP24 in Katowice.


Participants in the panel discussion on ‘Making a Just Transition away from Coal’, one of the debates related to Coal Free Day held at the UK pavilion at COP24 in Katowice. Climate Analytics’ Paola Yanguas Parra (third from left) took part in the discussion and gave a presentation on ‘Coal power generation scenarios in light of the Paris Agreement’.

31 May 2018
Japan at an international crossroads – seeking a sunset for coal

Japan stands at a crossroads ahead of its Presidency of the G20 in 2019. Its potential role as a leader of climate ambition and clean technology depends on it making the right decisions to establish a sunset for coal power generation. This shift must include both its domestic energy policy and its finance for coal technology overseas – a joint briefing by Matthew Webb (E3G) and Paola Yanguas Parra.

29 May 2018
Symposium to launch discussion on phase out of coal-fired power in Japan, Tokyo, Japan

The launch our report Science based coal phase-out timeline for Japan – Implications for policymakers and investors, produced in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Institute of Japan, provided an excellent platform for a discussion with policymakers and finance sector representatives about why Japan is lagging behind in the energy transition and what policies would help to change this. The event, attended by around 300 people, included presentations from from the Canadian Embassy and E3G about the Powering Past Coal Alliance.

Yuko Nishida, Teruyuki Ohno, and Yuri Okubo from the Renewable Energy Institute of Japan with Climate Analytics’ Dr Ursula Fuentes and Paola Yanguas Parra

16-17 March 2018
10th Energy Day Brasov, Romania

As part of the 10th Energy Day in Brasov, one of the major renewable energy related conferences in Romania, Climate Analytics policy analyst Paola Yanguas Parra (centre) was invited to talk about coal phase-out in the European Union in the context of the emission reductions required under the Paris Agreement, and what it means for Romania’s coal-based power generation.

Her presentation can be downloaded here.

Impact of our work

Our coal reports underpin the global coal phase-out movement by providing science-based benchmarks to establish target coal phase-out dates that are consistent with the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C limit.

The Powering Past Coal Alliance, launched at COP23, in its declaration refers directly to the benchmarks provided in our global coal report, to stress that the Paris Agreement requires coal phase-out by 2030 in the OECD countries and by 2050 in the rest of the world. This alliance, in which national and sub-national partners commit to phasing out existing coal power in their jurisdictions, and to introducing a moratorium on any new traditional coal power stations, aims to increase its membership to 50 by 2018.

In Europe, a number of countries and sub-national authorities have established phase-out dates consistent with the 2030 benchmark provided in our reports. The recently launched BeyondCoal European campaign, is aiming at establishing similar commitments in the remaining member states to achieve a coal phase-out in the European Union by 2030.

Blogs and opinion

16 May 2019, Rzeczpospolita
Polska i tak odejdzie od węgla

In this opinion editorial (in Polish), Climate Analytics’ Dr Andrzej Ancygier says that ultimately Poland will have to exit coal but faces two choices: either do it later, driven by market forces as renewables outcompete coal, leaving coalminers stranded and lacking alternatives, or earlier, proactively developing new jobs in green industry.

1 February 2019
The inadequate in pursuit of the out-of-date: Germany’s coal exit must be revised by 2020

Climate Analytics analysis arguing that the German Coal Commission must revise its phase-out plan already by 2020 to keep Germany in line with the Paris Agreement.

Überarbeitung bis 2020 – Der deutsche Kohleausstieg im Lichte des Klimaschutzplans

German version.

26 January 2019
German coal commission phase out plan falls short of Paris Agreement targets

Climate Analytics analysis showing that Germany’s coal commission proposal, in which the country would continue to burn coal for electricity until 2038, is incompatible with the Paris Agreement.

30 March 2017, The Conversation
In China and Pakistan’s coal romance – where is the love for the climate?

In this opinion editorial, Climate Analytics’ Dr Fahad Saeed writes about Pakistan’s plans to massively expand its coal capacity, and the political and financial dynamics behind this development.

In the news

Reicht das, Deutschland?, Spiegel Online, 29 January 2019

German government stands ready to move on coal exit proposal, Clean Energy Wire, 28 January 2019

Germany Plans to Quit Coal by 2038 ‘But There’s a Problem’, Ecowatch, 28 January 2019

Kein Knaller fürs Klima, Die Tageszeitung, 27 January 2019

Kohle für die Zukunft, Die Tageszeitung, 25 October 2018

Coal commission calls for surge in investment to offset coal phaseout, Handelsblatt, 25 October 2018

Forscher fordern kompletten Kohleausstieg bis 2030, Spiegel Online, 24 October 2018

Raus aus der Kohle bis 2030!, Die Tageszeitung, 24 October 2018

Climat: Un rapport préconise à l’Allemagne de sortir du charbon d’ici 2030, RTL, 24 October 2018

Was 1,5 Grad bedeutet, Klimareporter, 24 October 2018

Germany must exit coal by 2030 to meet 1.5C goal – study, Montel News, 24 October 2018

L’Allemagne invitée à sortir du charbon d’ici 2030, 7sur7, 24 October 2018

Useful links

Investors vs. the Paris Agreement
This briefing paper summarises research Urgewald and its partners commissioned to determine which institutional investors are backing the world’s top 120 coal plant developers.

Coal Exit List
A global list by Urgewald of coal companies and subsidiaries.

Global Coal Finance Tracker
Project tracking the financial support for coal plant projects globally. Currently include only foreign financing flows from public finance institutions such as export credit agencies and development banks.

The Global Plant Tracker
Provides information on all existing coal plants of 30 MW or larger, as well as every plant proposed since January 1, 2010.

Beyond Coal
Campaign which provides data on coal in the United States.

Europe Beyond Coal
Campaign which provides data on coal in the European Union.

Coal phase-out – regional perspective

CO2 emissions from operating coal power plants in all regions in the world largely surpass emissions budget in line with the Paris Agreement 1.5°C limit. Building new coal power plants would be completely inconsistent with any development in line with meeting the Paris Agreement’s long-term temperature goal.

The cost-optimal pathways show that to be in line with the Paris Agreement, the OECD and EU countries need to phase out coal the fastest – by 2030. China would need to phase out coal around 2040, and the rest of the world by 2050.

Climate Analytics’ Ursula Fuentes Hutfilter at the Climate Transparency event in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Our report Implications of the Paris Agreement for coal use in the power sector contains the full details of how we arrived at these coal phase out dates and what models we used to calculate the least-cost pathways.

Spotlight on Germany

In our latest report, we show that Germany needs to phase coal out of its electricity sector by 2030 to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement. This is earlier than the dates discussed so far by the Coal Commission, a body established to come up with a coal exit plan by the end of 2018.

If Germany follows the Paris Agreement compatible pathway we propose here, it can also make significant steps towards meeting its 2020 emission reduction targets – something seen as impossible at the moment.

Under a planned and structured coal phase out, energy security and reliability of electricity supply is not expected to be a major concern and will be manageable. As well as reduced health impacts, a coal exit from electricity generation by 2030 in Germany will bring added benefits in job creation, helping to smooth the transition to a zero-carbon energy system.

Read more

Spotlight on the EU

The EU has over 300 power plants with 738 separate generating units (as of July 2016). These are not evenly distributed across the individual member states and those most reliant on coal are Poland, Germany, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania. Germany and Poland alone are jointly responsible for 51% of the EU’s installed coal capacity and 54% of emissions from coal.

This map was made using data from the EU coal-fired power plants database hosted and coordinated by Climate Action Network (CAN) Europe. To view a full page version of the map click the chain icon in the bottom right hand corner or click here.

According to our modelling, the EU will exceed its Paris Agreement-compatible emissions budget for coal based electricity generation by 85% in 2050 if all existing coal-fired power plants continue operating to the end of their full life span. If currently announced and planned plants are built in the coming years, this number will rise to almost 100%.

For the EU to remain within its carbon budget, member states must first shelve plans for any additional coal-fired generating capacity and secondly, must start actively shutting down currently operating units at an increased rate. Analysis suggests 25% of currently operating coal-fired power units need to be shut down by 2020, rising to 72% by 2025, before a complete shutdown by 2030.

The critical question is which criteria should determine when individual units are switched off? In our report A stress test for coal in Europe under the Paris Agreement we outline two possible strategies for how the EU could achieve a complete phase out of coal use in electricity generation, proposing a shutdown date for each coal-fired power generating unit.

Both methods evaluate units on emissions performance and profit generation potential. The first approach, the Regulator Perspective, prioritises shutting down the most carbon intensive plants first, where as the second approach, the Market Perspective, prioritises shutting down the least valuable plants in terms of revenue generation potential.

Climate Analytics - Coal Shutdown Rates

More information / Full report / Executive summary – English / Executive summary – German / Executive summary – Polish

EU coal vs air pollution regulation

Apart from being the largest source of CO2 emissions, coal combustion is also a major threat to public health globally. Pollution from coal plants is responsible for about 23,000 premature death in the EU every year. About 82% of EU, 80% German and virtually all Polish coal power plants do not comply with a new EU regulation on industry air pollution emissions standards that they need to meet by 2021. Read more

Spotlight on Japan

In Japan, the world’s sixth largest emitter, more than half of electricity emissions in 2016 came from coal – around 20% of its total greenhouse gas emissions – from around 45GW of coal-fired power generation capacity. Yet it is planning to add a further 18 GW of new and additional coal power plants to its existing 45GW, of which 5GW are already under construction, prioritising it over renewable energy.

If Japan builds the coal-fired generation it is planning, it will exceed its Paris Agreement emissions budget (2018-2050) by nearly 300 percent.

Investing in new coal capacity in Japan could leave investors with stranded assets, as the world moves away from coal. Many big Japanese companies have international commitments such as R100 and Science Based Targets (SBT), which could be undermined by coal. They risk losing competitiveness in the global markets as Japan invests in coal rather than the global trend towards renewable energy.

Read more in our report Science based coal phase-out timeline for Japan – Implications for policymakers and investors, produced in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Institute of Japan (report also available in Japanese).

Focus on South and South East Asia

South and South East Asia’s growing economies can shift from their current carbon-intensive pathways to renewable energy to fuel economic growth, boost sustainable development and overcome energy poverty while avoiding life-threatening pollution and environmental degradation, according to a report by Climate Analytics presented at the Bonn climate talks on June 2019.

The report is the first to apply the insights from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on the 1.5˚C global warming limit to these regions, and shows how Asia’s energy systems can transition to zero carbon, in line with the Paris Agreement. The report also includes seven country studies – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines.

Read more in our report, “Decarbonising South and South East Asia”.

Expanding our work

Coal is still cheap because it does not factor in the costs of environmental and health impacts, so there is no strong market signal to phase out. Many developing countries look to coal to meet their rapidly growing energy demand due to its low price, the availability of this technology and blueprints for coal deployment, as well as financing. However, renewable energy is a low cost alternative and many countries are already well on the way in its deployment at scale, while others have a very high potential for its deployment.

We’re in the process of expanding our work on science-based coal phase out strategies into the Asia-Pacific region. A number of countries in this region are planning to significantly increase their coal capacities. Phasing out coal is a complex problem; solving it must involve many actors and it must occur on parallel with a phase-in of renewables and integration. We work with partner institutions to develop an analytical framework that encompasses not just coal phase-out but also renewables phase-in and integration, aiming to inform policymakers in developing countries.