With the introduction of the Fit-for-55 package, the EU has become the first major regulator to enact binding measures targeting emissions from international maritime shipping outside of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).

This paper recommends strengthening new EU regulations to close loopholes, enacting stricter emission intensity reduction targets and increasing non-compliance penalties, supporting green shipping corridors to facilitate partnerships with third countries, and supporting neighbouring countries in developing zero-emission fuel technology and infrastructure capabilities.

The best course of action is for the EU to push for greater ambition at the IMO for globally agreed measures, especially market-based measures, while working towards an equitable transition through financial support, capacity building, and cooperation, particularly for vulnerable Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS).


This publication was produced as a deliverable under the project 4i-TRACTION – innovation, investment, infrastructure and sector integration: TRAnsformative policies for a ClimaTe-neutral European UnION. This project received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 101003884.