Paris Agreement Ratification Tracker


Climate Analytics tracks the progress of ratification on this page. More information on ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement can be found here.

A number of countries signaled an intent to ratify the Paris Agreement this year. How close will this bring us to crossing the double threshold of 55 countries and 55% global emissions required for an early entry into force of the Agreement? Here’s our projection for Paris Agreement total ratifications in 2016.

As of 30 September 2016: 191 Parties signed the Agreement, 61 Parties ratified.

Projection

A number of countries signaled an intent to ratify the Paris Agreement this year. How close will this bring us to crossing the double threshold of 55 countries and 55% global emissions required for an early entry into force of the Agreement? Here’s our projection for Paris Agreement total ratifications in 2016.

Full details and sources for this projection available here.

Make your own predictions

Do you want to make your own predictions on which countries will join or need to join for the Paris Agreement to enter into force? Just download our Excel tool and start your very own Entry-Into-Force Simulation!

Our colleagues at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) have produced a tool which tracks the ratification of the Paris Agreement and enables you to explore various scenarios. The visualisation also enables viewing by share of global emissions. You can access it on the PRIMAP-live website.

The Paris Agreement enters into force thirty days after ratification by at least 55 countries and by countries representing at least 55% of global emissions. It will become legally binding for those countries that sign and ratify it, once it has entered into force.

The Agreement opened for signature on 22 April 2016 at a high-level signing ceremony, convened by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, taking place in New York. Signature is the stage before ratification. When a country signs the Paris Agreement, it is obliged to refrain from acts that would defeat its object and purpose. The next step, ratification, signifies a country’s intent to be legally bound to the terms of the treaty at the international level.

It is important to note that the Paris Agreement has a double threshold of 55 countries and 55% of global emissions that must both be met before it enters into force and becomes legally binding. There will need to be a significant number of ratifications from larger emitters and economies to ensure that the Paris Agreement enters into force. This is a key design feature of the Paris Agreement – a small number of major emitters cannot force a binding agreement on the rest of the world, and, on the other side a large number of smaller countries cannot force a binding agreement on the major emitters. The 55% threshold was set in order to ensure that it would be hard for a blocking coalition to form – a group of countries whose failure to ratify could ensure that an emissions threshold could not be met in practice. A number much above 60% of global emissions could indeed have led to such a situation.

The article Paris climate deal signing ceremony: what it means and why it matters is a good guide to the steps towards the ratification, who is expected to take part and why early action is important.

Solely for the purposes of Article 21 of the Paris Agreement, the UNFCCC published a table containing information on the most up-to-date total and per cent of greenhouse gas emissions communicated by Parties to the Convention in their national communications, greenhouse gas inventory reports, biennial reports or biennial update reports, as of 12 December 2015. This table forms the underlying data for Climate Analytics’ Paris Agreement Ratification Tracker.

*Countries that are member States of the European Union. The emissions of the European Union are 4 488 404 Gg in 2013, which represents the sum of the emissions of the Member States of the European Union in this table, and corresponds to a share of 12.10%. The emissions of the European Union are not counted as additional to those of the member States.

Country % of Global Emissions Status Declarations (Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were made upon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.)
Albania 0,02% Signed & Ratified
Antigua and Barbuda 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Argentina 0,89% Signed & Ratified
Bahamas 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Bangladesh 0,27% Signed & Ratified
Barbados 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Belarus 0,24% Signed & Ratified
Belize 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Brazil 2,48% Signed & Ratified
Brunei Darussalam n/a Signed & Ratified
Cameroon 0,45% Signed & Ratified
China 20,09% Signed & Ratified Declaration: In accordance with the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Agreement applies to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.
Cook Islands 0,00% Signed & Ratified “Declaration: The Government of the Cook Islands declares its understanding that acceptance of the Paris Agreement and its application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change. The Government of the Cook Islands further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.”
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 0,23% Signed & Ratified
Dominica 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Fiji 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Ghana 0,09% Signed & Ratified
Grenada 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Guinea 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Guyana 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Honduras 0,03% Signed & Ratified
Iceland 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Kiribati 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Lao People’s Democratic Republic 0,02% Signed & Ratified
Madagascar 0,08% Signed & Ratified
Maldives 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Mali 0,03% Signed & Ratified
Marshall Islands 0,00% Signed & Ratified “Declaration: “…the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares its understanding that ratification of the Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under any other laws, including international law, and the communication depositing the Republic’s instrument of ratification shall include a declaration to this effect for international record; FURTHERMORE, the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares that, in light of best scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Doha Amendment and the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-Industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests…””
Mauritius 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Mexico 1,70% Signed & Ratified
Micronesia (Federated States of) 0,00% Signed & Ratified “Declaration: “The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia declares its understanding that its ratification of the Paris Agreement does not constitute a renunciation of any rights of the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation and liability due to the adverse effects of climate change; and The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessments on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in the Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels, and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for the national interests of the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia.””
Mongolia 0,05% Signed & Ratified
Morocco 0,16% Signed & Ratified
Namibia 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Nauru 0,00% Signed & Ratified “Declaration: “… the Government, of Nauru declares its understanding that the ratification of the Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility [for] the adverse effects of climate change. FURTHER, the Government of Nauru declares that no provisions in the Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law. AND FURTHER, the Government of Nauru declares its understanding that Article 8 and decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 51 in no way limits the ability of Parties to UNFCCC or the Agreement to raise, discuss, or address any present or future concerns regarding the issues of liability and compensation. The Republic of Nauru put forth its concern intended to recognize and acknowledge its national interest…””
Niger 0,04% Signed & Ratified
Norway 0,14% Signed & Ratified
Palau 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Palestine n/a Signed & Ratified
Panama 0,03% Signed & Ratified
Papua New Guinea 0,01% Signed & Ratified
Peru 0,22% Signed & Ratified
Saint Kitts and Nevis 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Saint Lucia 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Samoa 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Senegal 0,05% Signed & Ratified
Seychelles 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Singapore 0,13% Signed & Ratified
Solomon Islands 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Somalia n/a Signed & Ratified
Sri Lanka 0,05% Signed & Ratified
Swaziland 0,05% Signed & Ratified
Thailand 0,64% Signed & Ratified
Tonga 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Tuvalu 0,00% Signed & Ratified “Declaration: “The Government of Tuvalu hereby notifies that it will apply the Paris Agreement provisionally as provided for in paragraph 4 of Decision 1/CP.21. […] The Government of Tuvalu further declares its understanding that acceptance of the aforesaid Paris Agreement and its provisional application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change. The Government of Tuvalu further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.””
Uganda 0,07% Signed & Ratified
Ukraine 1,04% Signed & Ratified
United Arab Emirates 0,53% Signed & Ratified
United States of America 17,89% Signed & Ratified
Vanuatu 0,00% Signed & Ratified
Afghanistan 0,05% Signed
Algeria 0,30% Signed
Andorra 0,00% Signed
Angola 0,17% Signed
Armenia 0,02% Signed
Australia 1,46% Signed
Austria 0,21% Signed
Azerbaijan 0,13% Signed
Bahrain 0,06% Signed
Belgium 0,32% Signed Declaration made upon signature: “This signature engages also the Walloon Region, the Flemish Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.”
Benin 0,02% Signed
Bhutan 0,00% Signed
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0,12% Signed
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0,08% Signed
Botswana 0,02% Signed
Bulgaria 0,15% Signed
Burkina Faso 0,06% Signed
Burundi 0,07% Signed
Cabo Verde 0,00% Signed
Cambodia 0,03% Signed
Canada 1,95% Signed
Central African Republic 0,01% Signed
Chad 0,06% Signed
Chile 0,25% Signed
Colombia 0,41% Signed
Comoros 0,00% Signed
Congo 0,01% Signed
Costa Rica 0,03% Signed
Cote d’Ivoire 0,73% Signed
Croatia 0,07% Signed
Cuba 0,10% Signed
Cyprus 0,02% Signed
Czechia 0,34% Signed
Democratic Republic of the Congo 0,06% Signed
Denmark 0,15% Signed
Djibouti 0,00% Signed
Dominican Republic 0,07% Signed
Ecuador 0,67% Signed
Egypt 0,52% Signed
El Salvador 0,03% Signed
Equatorial Guinea n/a Signed
Eritrea 0,01% Signed
Estonia 0,06% Signed
Ethiopia 0,13% Signed
Finland 0,17% Signed
France 1,34% Signed
Gabon 0,02% Signed
Gambia 0,05% Signed
Georgia 0,03% Signed
Germany 2,56% Signed
Greece 0,28% Signed
Guatemala 0,04% Signed
Guinea-Bissau 0,02% Signed
Haiti 0,02% Signed
Hungary 0,15% Signed
India 4,10% Signed
Indonesia 1,49% Signed
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1,30% Signed
Ireland 0,16% Signed
Israel 0,20% Signed
Italy 1,18% Signed
Jamaica 0,04% Signed
Japan 3,79% Signed
Jordan 0,07% Signed
Kazakhstan 0,84% Signed
Kenya 0,06% Signed
Kuwait 0,09% Signed
Kyrgyzstan 0,03% Signed
Latvia 0,03% Signed
Lebanon 0,07% Signed
Lesotho 0,01% Signed
Liberia 0,02% Signed
Libya n/a Signed
Liechtenstein 0,00% Signed
Lithuania 0,05% Signed
Luxembourg 0,03% Signed
Malawi 0,07% Signed
Malaysia 0,52% Signed
Malta 0,01% Signed
Mauritania 0,02% Signed
Monaco 0,00% Signed
Montenegro 0,01% Signed
Mozambique 0,02% Signed
Myanmar 0,10% Signed
Nepal 0,07% Signed
Netherlands 0,53% Signed
New Zealand 0,22% Signed
Nigeria 0,57% Signed
Oman 0,06% Signed
Pakistan 0,43% Signed
Paraguay 0,06% Signed
Philippines 0,34% Signed
Poland 1,06% Signed “Declaration made upon signature: “The Government of the Republic of Poland recognizes that under Article 9 paragraph 1 of the Paris Agreement developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention. In this context the Government of the Republic of Poland notes that Poland is a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change not included in Annex II.””
Portugal 0,18% Signed
Qatar 0,17% Signed
Republic of Korea 1,85% Signed
Republic of Moldova 0,04% Signed
Romania 0,30% Signed
Russian Federation 7,53% Signed
Rwanda 0,02% Signed
San Marino 0,00% Signed
Sao Tome and Principe 0,00% Signed
Serbia 0,18% Signed
Sierra Leone 0,98% Signed
Slovakia 0,12% Signed
Slovenia 0,05% Signed
South Africa 1,46% Signed
South Sudan n/a Signed
Spain 0,87% Signed
Sudan 0,18% Signed
Suriname 0,01% Signed
Sweden 0,15% Signed
Switzerland 0,14% Signed
Tajikistan 0,02% Signed
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0,03% Signed
Timor-Leste 0,00% Signed
Togo 0,02% Signed
Trinidad and Tobago 0,04% Signed
Tunisia 0,11% Signed
Turkey 1,24% Signed
Turkmenistan 0,20% Signed
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland* 1,55% Signed
United Republic of Tanzania 0,11% Signed
Uruguay 0,05% Signed
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0,52% Signed
Viet Nam 0,72% Signed
Yemen 0,07% Signed
Zambia 0,04% Signed
Zimbabwe 0,18% Signed
Iraq 0,20% Unsigned
Nicaragua 0,03% Unsigned
Niue 0,01% Unsigned
Saudi Arabia 0,80% Unsigned
Syrian Arab Republic 0,21% Unsigned
Uzbekistan 0,54% Unsigned